Key Information (War on Drugs, Racial Profiling, Prisons)

 

  • Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education: 95 percent of respondents imagined an African American when asked about drug user
  • In some states, African Americans constituted “80-90 percent of all drug offenders sent to prison” (as of 2000) and that in 15 states, African Americans were sent “to prison on drug charges at a rate from twenty to fifty-seven times greater than that of white men”
  • What is the “single most important cause of the prison boom in the United States”– CONVICTIONS FOR DRUG OFFENSES – PRISON BOOM THROUGH INCARCERATION OF PEOPLE OF COLOR, PARTICULARLY YOUTH AND POOR on DRUG CHARGES
  • What contributes to a system of prisons that continue to be fully occupied — parole violations
  • Over 1 million black people(out of 35 million total), 1 out of 35; split it in half, 1 out of 17 men, remove the very old and very young, the number drops to 1 in 10; including those on parole or probation the number is 1 in 4; for those in their 20s its 1 in 3; black males have 30%+ chance of doing time at some point in their lives.  SO, 1 in 3 black men in 20s are on probation, parole or in prison; Latinos around 16% (1 in 6) and whites around 4% (1 in 24)
  • On Interstate 95 in Maryland, African Americans reflected 17% of drivers, but accounted for 70% of those stopped and searched by the police (racial minorities: 21 percent of drivers but 80 of drivers searched); Black women are 20 times more likely than white women to be searched by U.S. Customs and even forced to take laxatives, even though white and Latina women are more likely to be carrying drug
  • Black heroin deliverers are more than 22 times more likely than white heroin deliverers to be arrested,” NOTED REPORT FROM KATHERINE BECKETT. “Black methamphetamine deliverers are over 31 times more likely than white methamphetamine deliverers to be arrested.”
  • “Circular LOGIC OF RACIAL PROFILING”: prisons or arrest rates cited as basis of profile (of course if you stop 100 motorists and 80 are racial minorities with countless white motorist in possession driving right past officer, is it surprising that arrests and prisons look the way to do: profile reflects profile not profile of who is a criminal – that becomes justification or basis of profile
  • In NY, 46,500 people were arrested for marijuana possession in 2009; 87% of these people were black and Latino.
  • 90 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses in Illinois are black
  • LA county between 1988-1995 did not convict a single person on a crack offense
  • Crack is racialized black and poor, powder as white and rich. Yet, most crack users are whites between 16 and 36  (nearly 2/3)
  • In 1991, the Hartford Courant reported that bail amounts for black defendants were, on average, more than 70 percent higher than for white defendants.
  • In California alone, during the first five years of the Drug War (1986-1991), nearly 70,000 black people were incarcerated, a rate of 1000 per month or 1 every half an hour (for 5 years!).  30,000 Chicano/Latinos were put away and 15,000 whites over the same period.  In all, nearly 120,000 people were subtracted from the public sphere in the State of California, the equivalent of the carnage produced by the atomic bomb at Hiroshima
  • Among youth with no prior record arrested for violent crimes, including murder, rape and robbery, 137 out of every 100,000 blacks were incarcerated, compared with 15 out of every 100,000 white
  • Defendants convicted of crack possession in 1994, for example, were 84.5% black, 10.3% white, and 5.2% Latinos.  Trafficking offenders were 4.1% white, 88.3% black, and 7.1% Latino
  • More generally, while African Americans constitute 13% of all monthly drug users, they represent 38% of arrests for drug possession, 55% of convictions and 74% of prison sentences
  • The number of black (non-Latino) women incarcerated for drug offenses in state prisons increased by 828% from 1986 to 1991, first five years of Reagan’s War on Drugs
  • A black youth is six times more likely to be locked up than a white peer, even when charged with a similar crime and when neither has a prior record
  • In New York, women of color are 91% of those women sentenced to prison for drug crimes, although they make up just 32% of the state’s female population.8
  • Although Native Americans in Montana comprise only about 6 percent of the total state population, Native women constitute approximately 25% of the female prison population. According to Professor Luana Ross, “[a] partial explanation for the female prison population is their incarceration for drug offenses
  • Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education: 95 percent of respondents imagined an African American when asked about drug user
  • Crime=blackness; drugs=blackness – Kathyrn Russell’s idea of “criminalblackman”
  • “Racial bias in drug war was inevitable” (104) because of racial stigmas, because of inequality, because of history, because of white racial framing
  • Responding to claim that arrest/prosecution/sentencing/prison populations are racially defined because blacks and Latinos are more likely to use or sell drugs in open spaces, more likely to be arrest: Katherine Beckett found that although 100s of open-air drug transactions were taking within white neighborhoods, the police focused on black neighborhoods, where drug transactions less frequent.
  • Black heroin deliverers are more than 22 times more likely than white heroin deliverers to be arrested.
  • Black methamphetamine deliverers are over 31 times more likely than white methamphetamine deliverers to be arrested.”
  • Latino youth are 2.3 times as likely, African American youth 6.7 times as likely, and Asian/other youth 1.3 times as likely as their white peers to be arrested for a violent offense
  • “B/t 1977-1997, the arrests of AAPI increased by 726%
  • “Samoan young people had a higher arrest rate than African American youths in San Francisco.

 

Information on racial profiling

 

 

  • On Interstate 95 in Maryland, African Americans reflected 17% of drivers, but accounted for 70% of those stopped and searched by the police (racial minorities: 21 percent of drivers but 80 of drivers searched)
  • Black women =20 times more likely than white women to be searched by U.S. Customs
  • According to the GAO, among United States citizens, black women were nine times more likely than white women to be X-rayed after being frisked or patted down. >>>>> 1/2 as likely to be found carrying contraband as white women.
  • IN NY, African Americans six times more likely to be stopped and frisked even though less likely to result in arrest (guns found 2.5/100 stops
  • On Interstate 95 in Maryland, African Americans reflected 17% of drivers, but accounted for 70% of those stopped and searched by the police (racial minorities: 21 percent of drivers but 80 of drivers searched)
  • Black women =20 times more likely than white women to be searched by U.S. Customs
  • According to the GAO, among United States citizens, black women were nine times more likely than white women to be X-rayed after being frisked or patted down. >>>>> 1/2 as likely to be found carrying contraband as white women
  • IN NY, African Americans six times more likely to be stopped and frisked even though less likely to result in arrest (guns found 2.5/100 stops
  • A hospital in Charleston illegally tested women for drug use through the umbilical cord – out of the 30 women who were arrested at this hospital, 29 were African American (the one white women was arrested to a black man – a fact noted on her medical record)
  • Blacks are five times more likely than whites to be stopped on the New Jersey Turnpike (15 percent of drivers but racial minorities constitute 42 percent of stops and 73 percent of all arrests are of black motorists
  • The Colorado Sheriff in Eagle County ordered its deputies to stop all black and Latino motorists with CA license plates driving through the state
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